Difference between revisions of "Crystal Systems"

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| '''Cubic''' <br>
 
| '''Cubic''' <br>
 
The cube is composed of 6 square faces<br>
 
The cube is composed of 6 square faces<br>
at 90 degree angles to each other. Each<br>
+
at 90° angles to each other. Each<br>
 
face intersects one of the crystallographic<br>
 
face intersects one of the crystallographic<br>
 
axes and is parallel to the other two.<br>
 
axes and is parallel to the other two.<br>
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| '''Hexagonal'''
 
| '''Hexagonal'''
  
In the hexagonal system we have an additional axes,<br>
+
In the hexagonal system, we have an additional axis,<br>
which gives the crystals six sides. Three of these<br>
+
giving the crystals six sides. Three of these<br>
 
are equal in length and meet at 60° to each other. <br>
 
are equal in length and meet at 60° to each other. <br>
 
The C or vertical axis is at 90° to the shorter axes.<br>
 
The C or vertical axis is at 90° to the shorter axes.<br>
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| '''Orthorhombic'''<br>
 
| '''Orthorhombic'''<br>
  
In this system there are three axes, all of which<br>  
+
In this system, there are three axes all of which<br>  
 
meet at 90° to each other. However, all the axes<br>  
 
meet at 90° to each other. However, all the axes<br>  
 
are a different length.
 
are a different length.
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The above crystal systems all have axes sides<br>  
 
The above crystal systems all have axes sides<br>  
that meet at 90°. In the monoclinic system all<br>  
+
that meet at 90°. In the monoclinic system, all<br>  
 
the axes are different lengths. Two of them, <br>
 
the axes are different lengths. Two of them, <br>
 
the A and C axes, meet at 90°, but the third <br>
 
the A and C axes, meet at 90°, but the third <br>
one does not
+
one does not.
 
| [[image:xl_monoclinic.gif|left|]]
 
| [[image:xl_monoclinic.gif|left|]]
 
|[[Azurite]]<br>
 
|[[Azurite]]<br>

Revision as of 16:41, 10 November 2006

Crystal Systems & Forms

Crystal System Diagram Examples
Cubic

The cube is composed of 6 square faces
at 90° angles to each other. Each
face intersects one of the crystallographic
axes and is parallel to the other two.

Diamond

Garnet
Spinel

Tetragonal

The tetragonal system also has three axes
that all meet at 90°. It differs from the
isometric system in that the C axis is longer
than the A and B axis which are the same length
that all meet at 90°. It differs from the isometric
system in that the C axis is longer than the A
and B axis which are the same length.

Zircon
Hexagonal

In the hexagonal system, we have an additional axis,
giving the crystals six sides. Three of these
are equal in length and meet at 60° to each other.
The C or vertical axis is at 90° to the shorter axes.
Mineralogists sometimes divide this into two systems,
the hexagonal and the trigonal, based on their external
appearance, as follows:

Aquamarine

Benitoite
Beryl
Citrine
Emerald
Heliodor
Morganite
Quartz
Ruby
Sapphire

Trigonal

Again, the trigonal system is a subsystem of the
hexagonal. Most gem references will list these as
hexagonal.

Amethyst

Corundum
Tourmaline

Orthorhombic

In this system, there are three axes all of which
meet at 90° to each other. However, all the axes
are a different length.

Alexandrite

Andalusite
Chrysoberyl
Iolite
Peridot
Tanzanite
Topaz
Varisite

Monoclinic

The above crystal systems all have axes sides
that meet at 90°. In the monoclinic system, all
the axes are different lengths. Two of them,
the A and C axes, meet at 90°, but the third
one does not.

Azurite

Diopside
Feldspar
Kunzite
Nephrite

Triclinic

In this system all the axes are different
lengths and none of them meet at 90°.

Turquoise